This page shows a selection of different questions that Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust has received about cervical screening. The answers have been reviewed by Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust medical advisers.
- Why should I take up my cervical screening invitation?
- How many women attend cervical screening in the UK?
- Who is eligible for a cervical screening on the NHS?
- Is cervical screening painful?
- What is the difference between cervical screening and a smear test?
- Where can I go for my cervical screening?
- Can I go for my cervical screening when I am pregnant?
- Should lesbian and bisexual women go for cervical screening?
- Is there anyone who may not need to go for cervical screening?
- How long will I have to wait for my cervical screening results?
- Are the results of cervical screening reliable?
- Why are some cervical abnormalities missed?
- Will a cervical screening give a final diagnosis?
- Does an abnormal cervical screening mean I have cancer?
- Why do some women get abnormal results and others never do?
- Is having cervical screening like having a gynaecological MOT?
- I have always had clear screening results, should I opt out of the screening programme after 50?
- Why does cervical screening stop at 64?
- Is cervical screening more painful after the menopause?
- If I receive a negative HPV test and have been with the same partner for several years do I still need to attend cervical screening?
Cervical screening is a method of examining cells from the cervix. Screening can detect precancerous/abnormal cells so that they can be treated to prevent the occurrence of cancer. Having regular cervical screening offers the best protection against developing cervical cancer.
Around five million women are invited to attend cervical screening each year. Since 1997, the numbers of women attending screening in the UK has ranged from 77 to 83%. There has been a recent and worrying trend of fewer women attending screening; especially in the 25–34 age group, with one in three not taking up their invitation in 2011/2012. Also, across the UK figures for those not attending screening show a significant rise as age increases, suggesting that as women age, they consider screening less important.
Who is eligible for a cervical screening on the NHS?
Eligibility varies according to country:
|England, Northern Ireland and Wales||
Women aged 25–49 invited every three years
Women aged 50–64 invited every five years
||Women aged 20–60 invited every three years|
*In 2012 the UK National Screening Committee recommended a uniform screening age of 25 to 64 across all UK countries. These changes are due to be implemented in Scotland from 1st April 2016.
Around five million women in the UK have a cervical screening every year; 90–94% of whom receive a normal result. The procedure should not be painful, but some women can experience a degree of discomfort and even short-term mild pain. Being screened (especially if it's the first one) can be daunting for some, so it may help to find out beforehand exactly what happens during a cervical screening appointment.
The appointment should take no longer than around 20 minutes, with the procedure itself taking approximately three minutes. If you feel any pain and/or discomfort during the procedure please inform the practice nurse. Speculums come in different sizes so you can ask for a smaller one to be used if you are uncomfortable/in pain.
There is no difference between cervical screening and a smear test; they are two different names for the same procedure. Smear test is the older name for the test and it relates to the way the test used to be taken: cells where smeared on to a glass slide and the slide was sent to the laboratory. The test is different now and so most health care professionals use the term cervical screening. Your invitation letter will invite you to attend cervical screening, which is why it is the term that we use here on the website and in all of our information materials.
You are able to book your cervical screening appointment with the GP surgery that you are registered with, as you will receive you invitation letter from them. However, if you do not want to go to your GP you can also be screened at a sexual health clinic of your choice.
Every woman's screening history is different and offering a cervical screening when she is (or might be) pregnant will be dependent on this history. If you have had abnormal result in the past, have never had a cervical screening or have not attended previous invitations for screening then you should consult your doctor or practice nurse to ask for advice.
Yes. All women, regardless of their sexual orientation, who are over the age of invitation should have regular cervical screening. Most cervical abnormalities are caused by persistent infection with HPV. As HPV can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact in the genital area, gay women are equally at risk of contracting HPV and experiencing abnormal cervical changes and, thus, should always attend when invited for cervical screening.
A small minority of women may not need a cervical screening.
Women who have never been sexually active:
- The incidence of cervical cancer is extremely rare in women who have never been sexually active and the guidelines issued suggest that women who are sexually active attend for screening at the age of 25. More than 99% of cervical cancers are linked to infection with sexually transmitted HPV so it is recommended that if you have ever had sexual intercourse or genital-to-genital contact with a man or a woman, even just once, then you should attend for regular cervical screenings.
- If you are not currently in a sexual relationship but have been in the past, you are recommended to have regular cervical screening.
Women over 65:
- Women aged 65 and over who have had three normal test results in a row are not called back for further cervical screening tests. It is very unlikely that women in this category will go on to develop cervical cancer.
- If you are over 64 and have had abnormal results, you will continue to be invited for screening until the cells return to normal. Women aged 65 and over who have never had screening are entitled to a test.
- If you have never had a screening test and have been sexually active, you should have a test, regardless of your age.
Certain groups of women who have had hysterectomies:
- Some women who have had a hysterectomy are still thought to be at risk of developing abnormal cells and so should continue to have regular cervical screenings. For example, if your womb was removed but you still have your cervix, you should continue to go for regular screening. If your womb and cervix were removed to prevent or treat cancer, you may still be asked to have a vaginal smear (vault smear) for a short period of follow-up.
- If your womb and cervix were removed for a benign (non-cancerous) condition, such as fibroids or heavy bleeding, you do not need to have any more cervical screenings. In general, if you do not have a cervix then you do not need to attend a cervical screening.
As cervical screening tests are reviewed by specialists who examine the cells under a microscope, the length of time taken to receive your screening results can vary. NHS guidelines state that you should receive the results of your screening within two to six weeks depending on where you live in the UK, so be sure you ask when they will let you know your test result when you have your screening.
If there are no abnormalities seen you will be sent a letter confirming the result by your local screening office. Sometimes the hospital may contact you with the result. Some GP's surgeries request the patient to ring for their result – remember to check if they would like you to do this.
Cervical screening is 80–90% reliable and can prevent 60–80% of cervical cancers. This means that seven out of every 10 case of women who would have developed cancer of the cervix can be prevented .
There are several factors in the taking and reading of cervical screenings that makes it impossible to be 100% accurate. A cervical screening is a sample of cells taken from the surface of the cervix. Since it is only a sample, the cervical screening does not always accurately reflect what is occurring in the whole of the skin layer – and it is the latter that is important for making an accurate as possible diagnosis and, of course, attend screening when invited
No. It is important to remember that cervical screening is a screening test and not designed to give a final diagnosis. It is used to detect early cervical cell abnormalities which, if left untreated, could lead to the development of cervical cancer at a time in the future. It is understandable if you feel anxious after receiving an abnormal result, but it is more important that you know and understand what the abnormality is so you can discuss the results with your doctor and arrange appropriate follow-up.
No. The vast majority of cervical screening results are normal, but a very small percentage of the total screenings reported on every year are described as being either 'inadequate' or having a grade of abnormality. The majority of these abnormalities reflect precancerous changes in the cells of the cervix, not cancer.
Almost all women will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives, but less than one in 10 will have an abnormal screening result. We do not know why this is. In some women it may be related to the immune system's ability to get rid of this virus quickly.
If cervical cell abnormalities have been detected this does NOT mean that you have cervical cancer or that you will get cervical cancer in the future. What it does mean is that some of the cells of your cervix are slightly abnormal and that, if left untreated, they could go on to develop into cervical cancer at a later date.
Medical research has yet to establish why some women have persistent HPV infection, develop abnormal cell changes or develop cervical cancer. This is why it is important for all women to attend their NHS invitation for a cervical screening.
No. Cervical screening is designed solely to detect early cervical cell abnormalities which, if left untreated, could lead to the development of cervical cancer at a time in the future. It is not designed to detect abnormalities in the ovaries, the womb, the vulva or the vagina. However, having a regular cervical screening does give the opportunity for the cervix to be examined.
Making a decision about whether to attend cervical screening is always your choice. Having regular cervical screening offers the best protection against developing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by the HPV virus. Anybody who has ever been sexually active is at risk of contracting HPV. HPV is transmitted through skin to skin contact of the genital area, so if you are having sex (or have had sex in the past) you could be at risk of HPV and cervical cancer. Since screening offers the best protection against developing cervical cancer it is advisable to continue attending your screening appointments when you are invited. You will be invited to attend cervical screening until 64 (60 in Scotland).
Women aged 65 or over (60 in Scotland) are taken out of the national screening programme unless they need ongoing follow-up. This is generally required if a woman has had an abnormal result in any one of her three most recent cervical screening tests or if she is recommended for early repeat screening due to a previous cervical abnormality.
When we consider the way cervical cancer develops and with the knowledge that a woman has had three negative screening results in a row, it is highly unlikely that women 65 and over will go on to develop the disease. Scotland will be changing the age of screening and will be screening until 64 from 1st April 2016. For women eligible for screening, attending screening offers the best protection against developing cervical cancer.
Women aged 65 and over who have never had a test are entitled to one.
Every woman is different and her experience of screening will be unique to her. Your sample taker (usually a female practice nurse) will be trained to take your cervical screening test irrespective of whether you have been through the menopause or not. However, after menopause the vagina walls and entrance to the vagina can become smaller, women may also make less natural lubrication and this can make the insertion of the speculum (an instrument used to open the vagina so the sample taker can see the cervix) more uncomfortable.
After the menopause oestrogen levels in the body fall, which causes a condition called atrophic cervix. This happens to every woman. The cells of the cervix do not shed as easily as a woman who has not been through the menopause. This can sometimes produce an 'inadequate' cervical screening test result as not enough cells can be collected. If this result occurs you may need to come back to repeat the cervical screening test. Your screening results letter will let you know what you need to do.
Here are some tips to make cervical screening easier after the menopause:
- There are different sizes of speculum and you can ask for a smaller size to be used if you wish to
- If you've had problems with screening in the past you can ask your practice nurse to prescribe local oestrogen, which can help to make inserting the speculum easier and less painful
- Tell the sample taker if you are feeling uncomfortable or have had a previous screening experience that was difficult.
It is still important to attend cervical screening when invited even though your risk would be lower if your HPV test was negative. Screening for women over 50 years old is every five years and attending up until you are 64 is important to ensure a full screening history is recorded.
- Sasieni et al., 2009. Effectiveness of cervical screening with age: population based case-control study of prospectively recorded data. British Medical Journal 339, 1–7.